Introduction to CSLL
In Brazil, foreign entrepreneurs can catch themselves lost in the middle of many federal taxes, each one with a different acronym. PIS, COFINS, IPI, IRPJ are on the list, together with the CSLL, which we will clarify in this article.
What is CSLL?
CSLL is the abbreviation for Contribuição Social sobre o Lucro Líquido (Social Contribution on Net Profits). It is one of the contributions destined to finance the Brazilian social security system and its payment is required from every legal person resident in Brazil. Any corporation that is incorporated in the country must contribute.
How is the CSLL Collected?
As the name indicates, the CSLL is levied on net profit at a rate of 12% for financial institutions and 9% for other institutions. In order to know how much will you pay on CSLL, it is necessary to understand that, in Brazil, companies may opt to pay their taxes out of two forms of ascertainment.
Those systems determine the company’s profit, which will be used as calculation basis for CSLL and other tributes’ collection.
Which taxation arrangement applies to my business?
According to its legal form and profitability, companies may opt between these two taxation arrangements, foreseen in Brazilian tax legislation:
1) Lucro Real (Actual Income)
Under this method, the rate of CSLL will be applied over the net profit ascertained (revenue minus certified expenses). Contributors can also chose to establish their profits on an annually or quarterly basis. The Lucro Real system is indicated to companies with an uncertain profitability or a very variable profit during the year.
2) Lucro Presumido (Presumed Income)
Under this system, the CSLL is levied on a presumed profit, pre-established by the Brazilian tax legislation. The calculation basis is determined according to the following fixed coefficients:
12% of the gross revenue when it comes to commercial and industrial activities as well as hospital and transportation services.
32% of the gross revenue for services in general; business brokerage; administration, hiring out or transfer of movable or immovable assets and rights of whatever nature.
In the Lucro Presumido system, does not really matter how much the company have profited. To compose the calculation basis for CSLL, the fixed percentages above will always be used, what makes it easier to determine.
Overall, this system tends to be the best alternative for companies with a guaranteed annual profit higher than the percentages established by the Federal Revenue. In this option, CSLL is calculated on a quarterly basis.
For companies with annual billing revenue in excess of BRL 48.000.000, the Lucro Real system is mandatory.