Brazil is one of the few countries where the communism is in the current political situation and is widely accepted by the population. This article will outline the communist history in Brazil, their position in the country and why it still is an active force in the Brazilian politics.
Communism Origins in Brazil
The communism movement in Brazil was inherited by the Russian Revolution of 1917. The putsch allowed the ascension of the Leninist and Marxist ideology, establishing a socialist government headed by the Communist Party in Russia. Added to that, the increasing worker-proletarian crisis in Brazil created the perfect scenario for the growth of communism in Brazilians minds.
The great expansion of the capitalism during the XIX century permit a huge increase in the Brazilian industrial production and by consequence also an increase in the proletarians and workers presence in urban areas. Along with this increase the industrial development did not generated equal distribution of income nor improve the quality of life of the proletarian and workers in urban centers. The increasing displeasure in addition to the insalubrious conditions that they were submitted allowed the consolidation of a huge movement composed by this two social classes.
Since 1906, the worker-proletarian movement acted in Brazil. In that year, the Confederação Operário Brasileira, an organization composed by Brazilian workers, was created giving strength to their movement. In 1917, the Communist Revolution appeared as inspiration and hope to all worker-proletarian movements in the world. The possibility of eliminating the social and economic inequality through a communist system that was actually implemented in Russia lighted the hearts of the popular classes in Brazil and reached the intellectuals of the time.
From 1917 to 1920 Brazil experienced lots of mass strikes, but it was only in 1922 that the first Communist Party was formed in the country, achieving political recognition and legality, but then losing it in the same year. The party was named Partido Comunista Brasileiro, known as PCB, which means the Brazilian Communist Party.
Brazilian Communist Struggles
In 1935, the Intentona Comunista, a Brazilian communist revolutionary movement, attempted a coup to the regime, but it was stopped by the government. After the Intentona, the Communist Party was weakened, and only in 1945 the communist movement came back to legality. In the same year’s elections, 10% of the Brazilian voters voted for the communists.
In 1964, the Military authorities in Brazil assumed the government, declaring a Dictatorship that would last until 1985. During this period, the oppression to the political government opposition was brutal and the communists were sought, arrested and tortured.
In 1985, PCB came back to legality in the political scenario, but now subdivided in PCB and PCdoB, Partido Comunista do Brasil, which means the Communist Party of Brazil. The return to the democratic tradition in the country allowed elections among several parties, but Brazilian communist parties never achieved a significant number of votes to reach political power.
The Brazilian Communism Nowadays
With the ending of the military dictatorship, a process of opening the government to democracy and Brazilian gained the right to vote. The trade union movement was commanded by laborers during the end of the dictatorship. This movement developed large influence in the politic scenario of the 1990 decade and was guided by the left wing and by communist ideologies.
Until today, communist parties are part of Brazilian politics. Since 2003, the Presidency of Brazil has been commanded by members of the Partido Trabalhista, known as PT, which is the Worker's Party. Even though PT is not considered a communist party, it shows that left wing movement in Brazil is still very large.
The Brazilian politics scenario is composed by left wing, center and center-right parties, and in the country there isn't a far-right party. The speech of most of the parties defends equal rights to Brazilian population, the end of the poverty, the equal distribution of income and the social justice. This common speech developed by all Brazilian politics allowed the continuous existence of an extreme left wing in Brazil, as well as the current existence of communist parties.
Communist Parties in Brazil
The current communist representation in the country are:
- PCB: Partido Comunista Brasileiro, which is the Brazilian Communist Party (1922 – the first Communist Party in Brazil)
- PSB: Partido Socialista Brasileiro, which is the Brazilian Socialist Party (1947).
- PCdoB: Partido Comunista do Brasil, which is the Communist Party of Brazil (1962)
- PCR: Partido Comunista Revolucionário, which is the Revolutionary Communist Party (1966)
- PPS: Partido Popular Socialista, which is the Socialist Popular Party (1992).
- PSTU: Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado, which is the Socialist Party of the Unified Workers (1994)
- PCO: Partido da Causa Operária, which is the Party of the Worker Cause (1997)